The Sri Lankan Civil War was a conflict fought on the -nation of . Begining on July 23, 1983, there was an on-and-off , predominantly between the and the (the LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers), a militant organization which fought to create an state named in the north and the east of the island. After a 30-month-long military campaign, the Sri Lankan military defeated the Tamil Tigers in May 2009.

For over 25 years, the war caused significant adversity to the population, environment and the of the country, with over 90,000 people officially listed as killed during the course of the war. The tactics employed by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam resulted in them being banned as a organization in 32 countries, including the United States and the member nations of the EU. After two decades of fighting and three failed attempts at peace talks, including the unsuccessful as a peacekeeping force from 1987 to 1990, a lasting negotiated settlement to the conflict appeared possible when a cease-fire was declared in December 2001, and a ceasefire agreement signed with international mediation in 2002. However, limited hostilities renewed in late 2005 and the conflict began to escalate until the government launched a number of major military offensives against the LTTE beginning in July 2006, driving the LTTE out of the entire of the island. The LTTE then declared they would "resume their freedom struggle to achieve statehood".

The Final OffensiveEdit

In 2007, the government shifted its offensive to the north of the country, and formally announced its withdrawal from the ceasefire agreement on January 2, 2008, alleging that the LTTE violated the agreement over 10,000 times. Since then, aided by the destruction of a number of large arms smuggling vessels that belonged to the LTTE, and an international crackdown on the funding for the Tamil Tigers, the government took control of the entire area previously controlled by the Tamil Tigers, including their de-facto capital , main military base and the entire , leading the LTTE to finally admit defeat on May 17, 2009.